Protected Areas


 Areas Protected

 33,242 km2


Terrestrial and Inland Water


Not Available

Area protected, as per WDPA

Area protected, as per country reports

Coastal and Marine Coverage


Not Available

Area protected, as per WDPA

Area protected, as per country reports

Key species

Madagascar is estimated to have between 13,000 and 14,000 plant species, 80% of which are endemic. Endemism is particularly high amongst baobabs, palm trees, and orchids, including six of the world’s eight species of baobab. Likewise, mammals also display a high level of endemism, particularly amongst lemurs and other primates. Madagascar is home to many different species of birds.

Pressures and Threats

The major threats to Madagascar’s biodiversity include: deforestation and forest degradation; illegal exploitation of natural resources, including timber, as well as many terrestrial and marine species; the impact of alien invasive species and disease; as well as environmental impacts from extractive industries such as mining. Climate change remains a short and long-term threat to Madagascar’s ecosystems, particularly marine ecosystems.

Madagascar is classified among the 10 hotspots of the world biodiversity. The unique natural heritage of Madagascar is severely threatened. The natural forest which originally covered most part of the island is rapidly disappearing. Over the past years, tremendous progress has been made on comprehensive studies, conservation, and on Madagascar’s flora and wildlife future.

Protected and conserved areas designated as global sites of importance

Global designation

Number of sites

UNESCO Man and Biosphere Reserves


UNESCO World Heritage Sites (Natural or Mixed)


Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar sites)


 Source ((Ramsar, 2019; UNESCO, 2019a, 2019b)


Priority areas for conservation


Number of sites

Alliance for Zero Extinction sites


Important Bird & Biodiversity Areas


Key Biodiversity Areas


 (AZE Secretariat, 2019; BirdLife International, 2019c, 2019a)

Regional Reference Information System Madagascar

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