Protected Areas


Areas Protected

- 42,698 km2 Land
- 10,662 km2 Ocean

Terrestrial and Inland Water



Area protected, as per WDPA

Area protected, as per country reports

Coastal and Marine Coverage



Area protected, as per WDPA

Area protected, as per country reports

Key species

Sudan’s wide range of ecosystems is home to a wide diversity of species. Information on present distribution and abundance of wildlife resources in the Sudan is very limited. Sudan is home to 937 species of birds, including 17 species of global conservation concern. In the coastal habitats, mangroves are an important species, but are very threatened.

Sudan has diverse freshwater and marine biodiversity, including coral reefs, seagrass beds, and a wide range of species such as sharks, dugongs, turtles and seabirds. Information on the species composition is not well-known, particularly since the separation from South Sudan.

Pressures and threats

Sudan faces a number of threats: environmental degradation; expansion in civil construction and economic activities; climate change and drought; expansion of land cultivation; pollution and alien invasive species.

Wildlife occurs in protected areas and in fragmented habitats outside protected areas in desert, semi-desert, low rainfall savannah woodland, high rainfall savannah woodland and marine ecosystems. The number of many species has either declined or disappeared from many of their former habitats. There is no designated protected area representing fresh water ecosystems except the proposed Umgur wetland protected area.

Protected and conserved areas designated as global sites of importance

Global designation

Number of sites

UNESCO Man and Biosphere Reserves


UNESCO World Heritage Sites (Natural or Mixed)


Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar sites)


 Source ((Ramsar, 2019; UNESCO, 2019a, 2019b)


Priority areas for conservation


Number of sites

Alliance for Zero Extinction sites


Important Bird & Biodiversity Areas


Key Biodiversity Areas


 (AZE Secretariat, 2019; BirdLife International, 2019c, 2019a)

Regional Reference Information System Sudan

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Protected Areas Management and Biodiversity Conservation

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