Protected Areas


 Areas Protected

 - 361,594 km2 Land
 - 7,330 km2 Ocean

Terrestrial and Inland Water



Area protected, as per WDPA

Area protected, as per country reports

Coastal and Marine Coverage



Area protected, as per WDPA

Area protected, as per country reports

Key species

The country has extensive diversity of species with at least 14,500 known and confirmed species and is among 15 countries globally with the highest number of endemic as well as threatened species. It accounts for more than one third of total plant species in Africa and ranks twelfth globally in terms of bird species. The country is a home to about 20% of Africa's large mammal population. Of the total number of species existing in the country, more than half of them (54%) constitute plant species. Notably, over 25% of all plant species are used as wild-harvested medicinal plants.

Pressures and Threats

Tanzania’s richness in biodiversity experiences increasing threat like in other countries due to a number of natural and human drivers. The main threat to biodiversity in Tanzania is habitat loss and destruction by conversion to other land uses such as settlements, agriculture and grazing, overexploitation of plant and animal species; the introduction of non-native species, pollution and climate change.

Protected areas in Tanzania are highly varied in terms of their administrative authorities, ecosystem functions (water catchment, protection, and production), and habitat heterogeneity varying in vegetation types and landscapes from sea level to the top of the Kilimanjaro, the tallest mountain in Africa. More than one third of the country's total area is protected to a certain degree as national park, game reserve, marine park, forest reserve, conservation area, or other category.

Protected and conserved areas designated as global sites of importance

Global designation

Number of sites

UNESCO Man and Biosphere Reserves


UNESCO World Heritage Sites (Natural or Mixed)


Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar sites)


 Source ((Ramsar, 2019; UNESCO, 2019a, 2019b)


Priority areas for conservation


Number of sites

Alliance for Zero Extinction sites


Important Bird & Biodiversity Areas


Key Biodiversity Areas


 (AZE Secretariat, 2019; BirdLife International, 2019c, 2019a)

Regional Reference Information System Tanzania

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Protected Areas Management and Biodiversity Conservation

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