Protected Areas


 Areas Protected

 39,059 km2

Terrestrial and Inland Water



Area protected, as per WDPA

Area protected, as per country reports

Coastal and Marine Coverage

Not Applicable

Area protected or conserved,
as per WDPA

Key species

Uganda is rich in biodiversity, with close to 19,000 species of flora and fauna. Knowledge about these species is skewed towards mammals, birds, butterflies, some plants, reptiles, amphibians and fish. Uganda is home to about 380 mammal species. It also has over 1,000 bird species, representing almost half of all species recorded in Africa. Fish biodiversity in Uganda is dominated by the cichlid family, with a high level of endemism. 98 species of amphibians and 150 species of reptiles are found in Uganda. Of the approximately 5,000 species of higher plants, 70 are endemic. Fungi, lichen and insects are less well documented.

Pressures and threats

Uganda has many threats to its biodiversity, the most serious of which is the loss and degradation of habitat. Encroachment is prevalent and human-wildlife conflict is a perennial and growing problem. Poaching and the illicit trade in wildlife is a serious problem, as is destructive fishing practices. Alien invasive species pose particular threats to certain ecosystems.

Uganda is a convergence zone for five of Africa’s important Ecological Zones and home to an estimate of half the world’s Mountain Gorillas which exist within a complex social and political environment. In recent years Uganda has been seen as a model case study for numerous and varied approaches to address complex and connected conservation and development challenges such as community-based conservation to payments for ecosystem services.

Protected and conserved areas designated as global sites of importance

Global designation

Number of sites

UNESCO Man and Biosphere Reserves


UNESCO World Heritage Sites (Natural or Mixed)


Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar sites)


 Source ((Ramsar, 2019; UNESCO, 2019a, 2019b)


Priority areas for conservation


Number of sites

Alliance for Zero Extinction sites


Important Bird & Biodiversity Areas


Key Biodiversity Areas


 (AZE Secretariat, 2019; BirdLife International, 2019c, 2019a)

Regional Reference Information System Uganda

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